Services

The Tour of Heroes is evolving and we anticipate adding more components in the near future.

Multiple components will need access to hero data and we don't want to copy and paste the same code over and over. Instead, we'll create a single reusable data service and learn to inject it in the components that need it.

Refactoring data access to a separate service keeps the component lean and focused on supporting the view. It also makes it easier to unit test the component with a mock service.

Because data services are invariably asynchronous, we'll finish the chapter with a Promise-based version of the data service.

Run the for this part.

Where We Left Off

Before we continue with our Tour of Heroes, let’s verify we have the following structure. If not, we’ll need to go back and follow the previous chapters.

angular-tour-of-heroes
app
app.component.ts
app.module.ts
hero.ts
hero-detail.component.ts
main.ts
node_modules ...
index.html
package.json
styles.css
systemjs.config.js
tsconfig.json

Keep the app transpiling and running

Open a terminal/console window. Start the TypeScript compiler, watch for changes, and start our server by entering the command:

npm start

The application runs and updates automatically as we continue to build the Tour of Heroes.

Creating a Hero Service

Our stakeholders have shared their larger vision for our app. They tell us they want to show the heroes in various ways on different pages. We already can select a hero from a list. Soon we'll add a dashboard with the top performing heroes and create a separate view for editing hero details. All three views need hero data.

At the moment the AppComponent defines mock heroes for display. We have at least two objections. First, defining heroes is not the component's job. Second, we can't easily share that list of heroes with other components and views.

We can refactor this hero data acquisition business to a single service that provides heroes, and share that service with all components that need heroes.

Create the HeroService

Create a file in the app folder called hero.service.ts.

We've adopted a convention in which we spell the name of a service in lowercase followed by .service. If the service name were multi-word, we'd spell the base filename in lower dash-case. The SpecialSuperHeroService would be defined in the special-super-hero.service.ts file.

We name the class HeroService and export it for others to import.

app/hero.service.ts (starting point)

import { Injectable } from '@angular/core'; @Injectable() export class HeroService { }

Injectable Services

Notice that we imported the Angular Injectable function and applied that function as an @Injectable() decorator.

Don't forget the parentheses! Neglecting them leads to an error that's difficult to diagnose.

TypeScript sees the @Injectable() decorator and emits metadata about our service, metadata that Angular may need to inject other dependencies into this service.

The HeroService doesn't have any dependencies at the moment. Add the decorator anyway. It is a "best practice" to apply the @Injectable() decorator ​from the start​ both for consistency and for future-proofing.

Getting Heroes

Add a getHeroes method stub.

app/hero.service.ts (getHeroes stub)

@Injectable() export class HeroService { getHeroes(): void {} // stub }

We're holding back on the implementation for a moment to make an important point.

The consumer of our service doesn't know how the service gets the data. Our HeroService could get Hero data from anywhere. It could get the data from a web service or local storage or from a mock data source.

That's the beauty of removing data access from the component. We can change our minds about the implementation as often as we like, for whatever reason, without touching any of the components that need heroes.

Mock Heroes

We already have mock Hero data sitting in the AppComponent. It doesn't belong there. It doesn't belong here either. We'll move the mock data to its own file.

Cut the HEROES array from app.component.ts and paste it to a new file in the app folder named mock-heroes.ts. We copy the import {Hero} ... statement as well because the heroes array uses the Hero class.

app/mock-heroes.ts

import { Hero } from './hero'; export const HEROES: Hero[] = [ {id: 11, name: 'Mr. Nice'}, {id: 12, name: 'Narco'}, {id: 13, name: 'Bombasto'}, {id: 14, name: 'Celeritas'}, {id: 15, name: 'Magneta'}, {id: 16, name: 'RubberMan'}, {id: 17, name: 'Dynama'}, {id: 18, name: 'Dr IQ'}, {id: 19, name: 'Magma'}, {id: 20, name: 'Tornado'} ];

We export the HEROES constant so we can import it elsewhere — such as our HeroService.

Meanwhile, back in app.component.ts where we cut away the HEROES array, we leave behind an uninitialized heroes property:

app/app.component.ts (heroes property)

heroes: Hero[];

Return Mocked Heroes

Back in the HeroService we import the mock HEROES and return it from the getHeroes method. Our HeroService looks like this:

app/hero.service.ts

import { Injectable } from '@angular/core'; import { Hero } from './hero'; import { HEROES } from './mock-heroes'; @Injectable() export class HeroService { getHeroes(): Hero[] { return HEROES; } }

Use the Hero Service

We're ready to use the HeroService in other components starting with our AppComponent.

We begin, as usual, by importing the thing we want to use, the HeroService.

import { HeroService } from './hero.service';

Importing the service allows us to reference it in our code. How should the AppComponent acquire a runtime concrete HeroService instance?

Do we new the HeroService? No way!

We could create a new instance of the HeroService with new like this:

heroService = new HeroService(); // don't do this

That's a bad idea for several reasons including

What if ... what if ... Hey, we've got work to do!

We get it. Really we do. But it is so ridiculously easy to avoid these problems that there is no excuse for doing it wrong.

Inject the HeroService

Two lines replace the one line that created with new:

  1. We add a constructor that also defines a private property.
  2. We add to the component's providers metadata.

Here's the constructor:

app/app.component.ts (constructor)

constructor(private heroService: HeroService) { }

The constructor itself does nothing. The parameter simultaneously defines a private heroService property and identifies it as a HeroService injection site.

Now Angular will know to supply an instance of the HeroService when it creates a new AppComponent.

Learn more about Dependency Injection in the Dependency Injection chapter.

The injector does not know yet how to create a HeroService. If we ran our code now, Angular would fail with an error:

EXCEPTION: No provider for HeroService! (AppComponent -> HeroService)

We have to teach the injector how to make a HeroService by registering a HeroService provider. Do that by adding the following providers array property to the bottom of the component metadata in the @Component call.

providers: [HeroService]

The providers array tells Angular to create a fresh instance of the HeroService when it creates a new AppComponent. The AppComponent can use that service to get heroes and so can every child component of its component tree.

getHeroes in the AppComponent

We've got the service in a heroService private variable. Let's use it.

We pause to think. We can call the service and get the data in one line.

this.heroes = this.heroService.getHeroes();

We don't really need a dedicated method to wrap one line. We write it anyway:

getHeroes(): void { this.heroes = this.heroService.getHeroes(); }

The ngOnInit Lifecycle Hook

AppComponent should fetch and display heroes without a fuss. Where do we call the getHeroes method? In a constructor? We do not!

Years of experience and bitter tears have taught us to keep complex logic out of the constructor, especially anything that might call a server as a data access method is sure to do.

The constructor is for simple initializations like wiring constructor parameters to properties. It's not for heavy lifting. We should be able to create a component in a test and not worry that it might do real work — like calling a server! — before we tell it to do so.

If not the constructor, something has to call getHeroes.

Angular will call it if we implement the Angular ngOnInit Lifecycle Hook. Angular offers a number of interfaces for tapping into critical moments in the component lifecycle: at creation, after each change, and at its eventual destruction.

Each interface has a single method. When the component implements that method, Angular calls it at the appropriate time.

Learn more about lifecycle hooks in the Lifecycle Hooks chapter.

Here's the essential outline for the OnInit interface:

app/app.component.ts (ngOnInit stub)

import { OnInit } from '@angular/core'; export class AppComponent implements OnInit { ngOnInit(): void { } }

We write an ngOnInit method with our initialization logic inside and leave it to Angular to call it at the right time. In our case, we initialize by calling getHeroes.

ngOnInit(): void { this.getHeroes(); }

Our application should be running as expected, showing a list of heroes and a hero detail view when we click on a hero name.

We're getting closer. But something isn't quite right.

Async Services and Promises

Our HeroService returns a list of mock heroes immediately. Its getHeroes signature is synchronous

this.heroes = this.heroService.getHeroes();

Ask for heroes and they are there in the returned result.

Someday we're going to get heroes from a remote server. We don’t call http yet, but we aspire to in later chapters.

When we do, we'll have to wait for the server to respond and we won't be able to block the UI while we wait, even if we want to (which we shouldn't) because the browser won't block.

We'll have to use some kind of asynchronous technique and that will change the signature of our getHeroes method.

We'll use Promises.

The Hero Service makes a Promise

A Promise is ... well it's a promise to call us back later when the results are ready. We ask an asynchronous service to do some work and give it a callback function. It does that work (somewhere) and eventually it calls our function with the results of the work or an error.

We are simplifying. Learn about ES2015 Promises here and elsewhere on the web.

Update the HeroService with this Promise-returning getHeroes method:

app/hero.service.ts (excerpt)

getHeroes(): Promise<Hero[]> { return Promise.resolve(HEROES); }

We're still mocking the data. We're simulating the behavior of an ultra-fast, zero-latency server, by returning an immediately resolved Promise with our mock heroes as the result.

Act on the Promise

Returning to the AppComponent and its getHeroes method, we see that it still looks like this:

app/app.component.ts (getHeroes - old)

getHeroes(): void { this.heroes = this.heroService.getHeroes(); }

As a result of our change to HeroService, we're now setting this.heroes to a Promise rather than an array of heroes.

We have to change our implementation to act on the Promise when it resolves. When the Promise resolves successfully, then we will have heroes to display.

We pass our callback function as an argument to the Promise's then method:

app/app.component.ts (getHeroes - revised)

getHeroes(): void { this.heroService.getHeroes().then(heroes => this.heroes = heroes); }

The ES2015 arrow function in the callback is more succinct than the equivalent function expression and gracefully handles this.

Our callback sets the component's heroes property to the array of heroes returned by the service. That's all there is to it!

Our app should still be running, still showing a list of heroes, and still responding to a name selection with a detail view.

Checkout the "Take it slow" appendix to see what the app might be like with a poor connection.

Review the App Structure

Let’s verify that we have the following structure after all of our good refactoring in this chapter:

angular-tour-of-heroes
app
app.component.ts
app.module.ts
hero.ts
hero-detail.component.ts
hero.service.ts
main.ts
mock-heroes.ts
node_modules ...
index.html
package.json
styles.css
systemjs.config.js
tsconfig.json

Here are the code files we discussed in this chapter.

import { Injectable } from '@angular/core'; import { Hero } from './hero'; import { HEROES } from './mock-heroes'; @Injectable() export class HeroService { getHeroes(): Promise<Hero[]> { return Promise.resolve(HEROES); } } import { Component, OnInit } from '@angular/core'; import { Hero } from './hero'; import { HeroService } from './hero.service'; @Component({ selector: 'my-app', template: ` <h1>{{title}}</h1> <h2>My Heroes</h2> <ul class="heroes"> <li *ngFor="let hero of heroes" [class.selected]="hero === selectedHero" (click)="onSelect(hero)"> <span class="badge">{{hero.id}}</span> {{hero.name}} </li> </ul> <my-hero-detail [hero]="selectedHero"></my-hero-detail> `, styles: [` .selected { background-color: #CFD8DC !important; color: white; } .heroes { margin: 0 0 2em 0; list-style-type: none; padding: 0; width: 15em; } .heroes li { cursor: pointer; position: relative; left: 0; background-color: #EEE; margin: .5em; padding: .3em 0; height: 1.6em; border-radius: 4px; } .heroes li.selected:hover { background-color: #BBD8DC !important; color: white; } .heroes li:hover { color: #607D8B; background-color: #DDD; left: .1em; } .heroes .text { position: relative; top: -3px; } .heroes .badge { display: inline-block; font-size: small; color: white; padding: 0.8em 0.7em 0 0.7em; background-color: #607D8B; line-height: 1em; position: relative; left: -1px; top: -4px; height: 1.8em; margin-right: .8em; border-radius: 4px 0 0 4px; } `], providers: [HeroService] }) export class AppComponent implements OnInit { title = 'Tour of Heroes'; heroes: Hero[]; selectedHero: Hero; constructor(private heroService: HeroService) { } getHeroes(): void { this.heroService.getHeroes().then(heroes => this.heroes = heroes); } ngOnInit(): void { this.getHeroes(); } onSelect(hero: Hero): void { this.selectedHero = hero; } } import { Hero } from './hero'; export const HEROES: Hero[] = [ {id: 11, name: 'Mr. Nice'}, {id: 12, name: 'Narco'}, {id: 13, name: 'Bombasto'}, {id: 14, name: 'Celeritas'}, {id: 15, name: 'Magneta'}, {id: 16, name: 'RubberMan'}, {id: 17, name: 'Dynama'}, {id: 18, name: 'Dr IQ'}, {id: 19, name: 'Magma'}, {id: 20, name: 'Tornado'} ];

The Road We’ve Travelled

Let’s take stock of what we’ve built.

Run the for this part.

The Road Ahead

Our Tour of Heroes has become more reusable using shared components and services. We want to create a dashboard, add menu links that route between the views, and format data in a template. As our app evolves, we’ll learn how to design it to make it easier to grow and maintain.

We learn about Angular Component Router and navigation among the views in the next tutorial chapter.

Appendix: Take it slow

We can simulate a slow connection.

Import the Hero symbol and add the following getHeroesSlowly method to the HeroService

app/hero.service.ts (getHeroesSlowly)

getHeroesSlowly(): Promise<Hero[]> { return new Promise(resolve => { // Simulate server latency with 2 second delay setTimeout(() => resolve(this.getHeroes()), 2000); }); }

Like getHeroes, it also returns a Promise. But this Promise waits 2 seconds before resolving the Promise with mock heroes.

Back in the AppComponent, replace heroService.getHeroes with heroService.getHeroesSlowly and see how the app behaves.

Next Step

Routing