Webpack: an introduction

Webpack is a popular module bundler, a tool for bundling application source code in convenient chunks and for loading that code from a server into a browser.

It's an excellent alternative to the SystemJS approach we use throughout the documentation. In this guide we get a taste of Webpack and how to use it with Angular applications.

Table of contents

What is Webpack?

Configuring Webpack

Trying it out

Conclusions

What is Webpack?

Webpack is a powerful module bundler. A bundle is a JavaScript file that incorporate assets that belong together and should be served to the client in a response to a single file request. A bundle can include JavaScript, CSS styles, HTML, and almost any other kind of file.

Webpack roams over your application source code, looking for import statements, building a dependency graph, and emitting one (or more) bundles. With plugin "loaders" Webpack can preprocess and minify different non-JavaScript files such as TypeScript, SASS, and LESS files.

We determine what Webpack does and how it does it with a JavaScript configuration file, webpack.config.js.

Entries and outputs

We feed Webpack with one or more entry files and let it find and incorporate the dependencies that radiate from those entries. In this example, we start from the application's root file, src/app.ts:

webpack.config.js (single entry)

entry: { app: 'src/app.ts' }

Webpack inspects that file and traverses its import dependencies recursively.

src/app.ts

import { Component } from '@angular/core'; @Component({ ... }) export class AppComponent {}

Here it sees that we're importing @angular/core so it adds that to its dependency list for (potential) inclusion in the bundle. It opens @angular/core and follows its network of import statements until it has build the complete dependency graph from app.ts down.

Then it outputs these files to the app.js bundle file designated in configuration:

webpack.config.js (single output)

output: { filename: 'app.js' }

This app.js output bundle is a single JavaScript file that contains our application source and its dependencies. We'll load it later with a <script> tag in our index.html.

Multiple bundles

We probably do not want one giant bundle of everything. We'll likely prefer to separate our volatile application app code from comparatively stable vendor code modules.

We change the configuration so that we have two entry points, app.ts and vendor.ts:

webpack.config.js (two entries)

entry: { app: 'src/app.ts', vendor: 'src/vendor.ts' }, output: { filename: '[name].js' }

Webpack constructs two separate dependency graphs and emits two bundle files, one called app.js containing only our application code and another called vendor.js with all the vendor dependencies.

The [name] in the output name is a Webpack placeholder that is replaced with the entry names. app and vendor respectively.

We need a plugin to make this work; we'll cover that later in the chapter.

We met app.ts earlier. We wrote vendor.ts such that it imports the vendor modules we need:

src/vendor.ts

// Angular import '@angular/platform-browser'; import '@angular/platform-browser-dynamic'; import '@angular/core'; import '@angular/common'; import '@angular/http'; import '@angular/router'; // RxJS import 'rxjs'; // Other vendors for example jQuery, Lodash or Bootstrap // You can import js, ts, css, sass, ...

Loaders

Webpack can bundle any kind of file: JavaScript, TypeScript, CSS, SASS, LESS, images, html, fonts, whatever. Webpack itself doesn't know what to do with a non-JavaScript file. We teach it to process such files into JavaScript with loaders. Here we configure loaders for TypeScript and CSS:

webpack.config.js (two entries)

loaders: [ { test: /\.ts$/ loaders: 'ts' }, { test: /\.css$/ loaders: 'style!css' } ]

As Webpack encounters import statements like these ...

import { AppComponent } from './app.component.ts'; import 'uiframework/dist/uiframework.css';

... it applies the test RegEx patterns. When a pattern matches the filename, Webpack processes the file with the associated loader.

The first import file matches the .ts pattern so Webpack processes it with the awesome-typescript-loader. The imported file doesn't match the second pattern so its loader is ignored.

The second import matches the second .css pattern for which we have two loaders chained by the (!) character. Webpack applies chained loaders right to left so it applies the css loader first (to flatten CSS @import and url(...) statements) and then the style loader (to append the css inside <style> elements on the page).

Plugins

Webpack has a build pipeline with well-defined phases. We tap into that pipeline with plugins such as the uglify minification plugin:

plugins: [ new webpack.optimize.UglifyJsPlugin() ]

Configure Webpack

After that brief orientation, we are ready to build our own Webpack configuration for Angular apps.

Begin by setting up the development environment.

Create a new project folder

mkdir angular-webpack cd angular-webpack

Add these files to the root directory:

{ "name": "angular2-webpack", "version": "1.0.0", "description": "A webpack starter for Angular", "scripts": { "start": "webpack-dev-server --inline --progress --port 8080", "test": "karma start", "build": "rimraf dist && webpack --config config/webpack.prod.js --progress --profile --bail" }, "license": "MIT", "dependencies": { "@angular/common": "~2.4.0", "@angular/compiler": "~2.4.0", "@angular/core": "~2.4.0", "@angular/forms": "~2.4.0", "@angular/http": "~2.4.0", "@angular/platform-browser": "~2.4.0", "@angular/platform-browser-dynamic": "~2.4.0", "@angular/router": "~3.4.0", "core-js": "^2.4.1", "rxjs": "5.0.1", "zone.js": "^0.7.4" }, "devDependencies": { "@types/node": "^6.0.45", "@types/jasmine": "^2.5.35", "angular2-template-loader": "^0.4.0", "awesome-typescript-loader": "^2.2.4", "css-loader": "^0.23.1", "extract-text-webpack-plugin": "^1.0.1", "file-loader": "^0.8.5", "html-loader": "^0.4.3", "html-webpack-plugin": "^2.15.0", "jasmine-core": "^2.4.1", "karma": "^1.2.0", "karma-jasmine": "^1.0.2", "karma-phantomjs-launcher": "^1.0.2", "karma-sourcemap-loader": "^0.3.7", "karma-webpack": "^1.8.0", "null-loader": "^0.1.1", "phantomjs-prebuilt": "^2.1.7", "raw-loader": "^0.5.1", "rimraf": "^2.5.2", "style-loader": "^0.13.1", "typescript": "~2.0.10", "webpack": "^1.13.0", "webpack-dev-server": "^1.14.1", "webpack-merge": "^0.14.0" } } { "compilerOptions": { "target": "es5", "module": "commonjs", "moduleResolution": "node", "sourceMap": true, "emitDecoratorMetadata": true, "experimentalDecorators": true, "lib": ["es2015", "dom"], "noImplicitAny": true, "suppressImplicitAnyIndexErrors": true } } module.exports = require('./config/webpack.dev.js'); module.exports = require('./config/karma.conf.js'); var path = require('path'); var _root = path.resolve(__dirname, '..'); function root(args) { args = Array.prototype.slice.call(arguments, 0); return path.join.apply(path, [_root].concat(args)); } exports.root = root;

Many of these files and much of their content should be familiar from other Angular documentation chapters.

Learn about the package.json in the npm packages chapter. We require packages for Webpack use in addition to the ones listed in that chapter.

Learn about tsconfig.json in the Typescript configuration chapter.

Open a terminal/console window and install the npm packages with npm install.

Common Configuration

We will define separate configurations for development, production, and test environments. All three have some configuration in common. We'll gather that common configuration in a separate file called webpack.common.js.

Let's see the entire file and then walk through it a section at a time:

config/webpack.common.js

var webpack = require('webpack'); var HtmlWebpackPlugin = require('html-webpack-plugin'); var ExtractTextPlugin = require('extract-text-webpack-plugin'); var helpers = require('./helpers'); module.exports = { entry: { 'polyfills': './src/polyfills.ts', 'vendor': './src/vendor.ts', 'app': './src/main.ts' }, resolve: { extensions: ['', '.ts', '.js'] }, module: { loaders: [ { test: /\.ts$/, loaders: ['awesome-typescript-loader', 'angular2-template-loader'] }, { test: /\.html$/, loader: 'html' }, { test: /\.(png|jpe?g|gif|svg|woff|woff2|ttf|eot|ico)$/, loader: 'file?name=assets/[name].[hash].[ext]' }, { test: /\.css$/, exclude: helpers.root('src', 'app'), loader: ExtractTextPlugin.extract('style', 'css?sourceMap') }, { test: /\.css$/, include: helpers.root('src', 'app'), loader: 'raw' } ] }, plugins: [ new webpack.optimize.CommonsChunkPlugin({ name: ['app', 'vendor', 'polyfills'] }), new HtmlWebpackPlugin({ template: 'src/index.html' }) ] };

Webpack is a NodeJS-based tool so its configuration is a JavaScript commonjs module file that begins with require statements as such files do.

The configuration exports several objects, beginning with the entries described earlier:

config/webpack.common.js

entry: { 'polyfills': './src/polyfills.ts', 'vendor': './src/vendor.ts', 'app': './src/main.ts' },

We are splitting our application into three bundles:

Loading polyfills

Load Zone.js early, immediately after the other ES6 and metadata shims.

Our app will import dozens if not hundreds of JavaScript and TypeScript files. We might write import statements with explicit extensions as in this example:

import { AppComponent } from './app.component.ts';

But most of our import statements won't mention the extension at all. So we tell Webpack to resolve module file requests by looking for matching files with

config/webpack.common.js

resolve: { extensions: ['', '.ts', '.js'] },

We could add .css and .html later if we want Webpack to resolve extension-less files with those extension too.

Next we specify the loaders:

config/webpack.common.js

module: { loaders: [ { test: /\.ts$/, loaders: ['awesome-typescript-loader', 'angular2-template-loader'] }, { test: /\.html$/, loader: 'html' }, { test: /\.(png|jpe?g|gif|svg|woff|woff2|ttf|eot|ico)$/, loader: 'file?name=assets/[name].[hash].[ext]' }, { test: /\.css$/, exclude: helpers.root('src', 'app'), loader: ExtractTextPlugin.extract('style', 'css?sourceMap') }, { test: /\.css$/, include: helpers.root('src', 'app'), loader: 'raw' } ] },

The first pattern excludes .css files within the /src/app directories where our component-scoped styles sit. It includes only .css files located at or above /src; these are the application-wide styles. The ExtractTextPlugin (described below) applies the style and css loaders to these files.

The second pattern filters for component-scoped styles and loads them as strings via the raw loader — which is what Angular expects to do with styles specified in a styleUrls metadata property.

Multiple loaders can be also chained using the array notation.

Finally we add two plugins:

config/webpack.common.js

plugins: [ new webpack.optimize.CommonsChunkPlugin({ name: ['app', 'vendor', 'polyfills'] }), new HtmlWebpackPlugin({ template: 'src/index.html' }) ]

CommonsChunkPlugin

We want the app.js bundle to contain only app code and the vendor.js bundle to contain only the vendor code.

Our application code imports vendor code. Webpack is not smart enough to keep the vendor code out of the app.js bundle. We rely on the CommonsChunkPlugin to do that job.

It identifies the hierarchy among three chunks: app -> vendor -> polyfills. Where Webpack finds that app has shared dependencies with vendor, it removes them from app. It would do the same if vendor and polyfills had shared dependencies (which they don't).

HtmlWebpackPlugin

Webpack generates a number of js and css files. We could insert them into our index.html manually. That would be tedious and error-prone. Webpack can inject those scripts and links for us with the HtmlWebpackPlugin.

Environment-specific configuration

The webpack.common.js configuration file does most of the heavy lifting. We create separate, environment-specific configuration files that build on webpack.common by merging into it the peculiarities particular to their target environments.

These files tend to be short and simple.

Development Configuration

Here is the development configuration file, webpack.dev.js

config/webpack.dev.js

var webpackMerge = require('webpack-merge'); var ExtractTextPlugin = require('extract-text-webpack-plugin'); var commonConfig = require('./webpack.common.js'); var helpers = require('./helpers'); module.exports = webpackMerge(commonConfig, { devtool: 'cheap-module-eval-source-map', output: { path: helpers.root('dist'), publicPath: 'http://localhost:8080/', filename: '[name].js', chunkFilename: '[id].chunk.js' }, plugins: [ new ExtractTextPlugin('[name].css') ], devServer: { historyApiFallback: true, stats: 'minimal' } });

The development build relies on the Webpack development server which we configure near the bottom of the file.

Although we tell Webpack to put output bundles in the dist folder, the dev server keeps all bundles in memory; it doesn't write them to disk. So we won't find any files in the dist folder (at least not any generated from this development build).

The HtmlWebpackPlugin (added in webpack.common.js) use the publicPath and the filename settings to generate appropriate <script> and <link> tags into the index.html.

Our CSS are buried inside our Javascript bundles by default. The ExtractTextPlugin extracts them into external .css files that the HtmlWebpackPlugin inscribes as <link> tags into the index.html.

Refer to the Webpack documentation for details on these and other configuration options in this file

Grab the app code at the end of this guide and try:

npm start

Production Configuration

Configuration of a production build resembles development configuration ... with a few key changes.

config/webpack.prod.js

var webpack = require('webpack'); var webpackMerge = require('webpack-merge'); var ExtractTextPlugin = require('extract-text-webpack-plugin'); var commonConfig = require('./webpack.common.js'); var helpers = require('./helpers'); const ENV = process.env.NODE_ENV = process.env.ENV = 'production'; module.exports = webpackMerge(commonConfig, { devtool: 'source-map', output: { path: helpers.root('dist'), publicPath: '/', filename: '[name].[hash].js', chunkFilename: '[id].[hash].chunk.js' }, htmlLoader: { minimize: false // workaround for ng2 }, plugins: [ new webpack.NoErrorsPlugin(), new webpack.optimize.DedupePlugin(), new webpack.optimize.UglifyJsPlugin({ // https://github.com/angular/angular/issues/10618 mangle: { keep_fnames: true } }), new ExtractTextPlugin('[name].[hash].css'), new webpack.DefinePlugin({ 'process.env': { 'ENV': JSON.stringify(ENV) } }) ] });

We don't use a development server. We're expected to deploy the application and its dependencies to a real production server.

This time the output bundle files are physically placed in the dist folder.

Webpack generates file names with cache-busting hash. Thanks to the HtmlWebpackPlugin we don't have to update the index.html file when the hashes changes.

There are additional plugins:

Thanks to the DefinePlugin and the ENV variable defined at top, we can enable Angular production mode like this:

if (process.env.ENV === 'production') { enableProdMode(); }

Grab the app code at the end of this guide and try:

npm run build

Test Configuration

We don't need much configuration to run unit tests. We don't need the loaders and plugins that we declared for our development and production builds. We probably don't need to load and process the application-wide styles files for unit tests and doing so would slow us down; we'll use the null loader for those CSS.

We could merge our test configuration into the webpack.common configuration and override the parts we don't want or need. But it might be simpler to start over with a completely fresh configuration.

config/webpack.test.js

var helpers = require('./helpers'); module.exports = { devtool: 'inline-source-map', resolve: { extensions: ['', '.ts', '.js'] }, module: { loaders: [ { test: /\.ts$/, loaders: ['awesome-typescript-loader', 'angular2-template-loader'] }, { test: /\.html$/, loader: 'html' }, { test: /\.(png|jpe?g|gif|svg|woff|woff2|ttf|eot|ico)$/, loader: 'null' }, { test: /\.css$/, exclude: helpers.root('src', 'app'), loader: 'null' }, { test: /\.css$/, include: helpers.root('src', 'app'), loader: 'raw' } ] } }

Here's our karma configuration:

config/karma.conf.js

var webpackConfig = require('./webpack.test'); module.exports = function (config) { var _config = { basePath: '', frameworks: ['jasmine'], files: [ {pattern: './config/karma-test-shim.js', watched: false} ], preprocessors: { './config/karma-test-shim.js': ['webpack', 'sourcemap'] }, webpack: webpackConfig, webpackMiddleware: { stats: 'errors-only' }, webpackServer: { noInfo: true }, reporters: ['progress'], port: 9876, colors: true, logLevel: config.LOG_INFO, autoWatch: false, browsers: ['PhantomJS'], singleRun: true }; config.set(_config); };

We're telling Karma to use webpack to run the tests.

We don't precompile our TypeScript; Webpack transpiles our Typescript files on the fly, in memory, and feeds the emitted JS directly to Karma. There are no temporary files on disk.

The karma-test-shim tells Karma what files to pre-load and primes the Angular test framework with test versions of the providers that every app expects to be pre-loaded.

config/karma-test-shim.js

Error.stackTraceLimit = Infinity; require('core-js/es6'); require('core-js/es7/reflect'); require('zone.js/dist/zone'); require('zone.js/dist/long-stack-trace-zone'); require('zone.js/dist/proxy'); require('zone.js/dist/sync-test'); require('zone.js/dist/jasmine-patch'); require('zone.js/dist/async-test'); require('zone.js/dist/fake-async-test'); var appContext = require.context('../src', true, /\.spec\.ts/); appContext.keys().forEach(appContext); var testing = require('@angular/core/testing'); var browser = require('@angular/platform-browser-dynamic/testing'); testing.TestBed.initTestEnvironment(browser.BrowserDynamicTestingModule, browser.platformBrowserDynamicTesting());

Notice that we do not load our application code explicitly. We tell Webpack to find and load our test files (the files ending in .spec.ts). Each spec file imports all — and only — the application source code that it tests. Webpack loads just those specific application files and ignores the other files that we aren't testing.

Grab the app code at the end of this guide and try:

npm test

Trying it out

Here is the source code for a small application that we can bundle with the Webpack techniques we learned in this chapter.

<!DOCTYPE html> <html> <head> <base href="/"> <title>Angular With Webpack</title> <meta charset="UTF-8"> <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1"> </head> <body> <my-app>Loading...</my-app> </body> </html> import { platformBrowserDynamic } from '@angular/platform-browser-dynamic'; import { enableProdMode } from '@angular/core'; import { AppModule } from './app/app.module'; if (process.env.ENV === 'production') { enableProdMode(); } platformBrowserDynamic().bootstrapModule(AppModule); body { background: #0147A7; color: #fff; } import { Component } from '@angular/core'; import '../../public/css/styles.css'; @Component({ selector: 'my-app', templateUrl: './app.component.html', styleUrls: ['./app.component.css'] }) export class AppComponent { } <main> <h1>Hello from Angular App with Webpack</h1> <img src="../../public/images/angular.png"> </main> main { padding: 1em; font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; text-align: center; margin-top: 50px; display: block; } import { TestBed } from '@angular/core/testing'; import { AppComponent } from './app.component'; describe('App', () => { beforeEach(() => { TestBed.configureTestingModule({ declarations: [AppComponent]}); }); it ('should work', () => { let fixture = TestBed.createComponent(AppComponent); expect(fixture.componentInstance instanceof AppComponent).toBe(true, 'should create AppComponent'); }); }); import { NgModule } from '@angular/core'; import { BrowserModule } from '@angular/platform-browser'; import { AppComponent } from './app.component'; @NgModule({ imports: [ BrowserModule ], declarations: [ AppComponent ], bootstrap: [ AppComponent ] }) export class AppModule { }

The app.component.html displays this downloadable Angular logo .

// Angular import '@angular/platform-browser'; import '@angular/platform-browser-dynamic'; import '@angular/core'; import '@angular/common'; import '@angular/http'; import '@angular/router'; // RxJS import 'rxjs'; // Other vendors for example jQuery, Lodash or Bootstrap // You can import js, ts, css, sass, ... import 'core-js/es6'; import 'core-js/es7/reflect'; require('zone.js/dist/zone'); if (process.env.ENV === 'production') { // Production } else { // Development Error['stackTraceLimit'] = Infinity; require('zone.js/dist/long-stack-trace-zone'); }

Highlights:

Conclusions

We've learned just enough Webpack to configurate development, test and production builds for a small Angular application.

We could always do more. Search the web for expert advice and expand your Webpack knowledge.

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